Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle

the greatest man in French history

“France lost the battle. But France did not lose the war.”

La France a perdu une bataille, mais la France n’a pas perdu la guerre.

Reason for selection: Great soldier, great politician

French soldier and leader of the Free French during World War II who led the anti-German movement and freed France from Nazi oppression and led the reconstruction of postwar France.

In fact, it is the wealth of modern France, and there is no objection that it is a giant that left the biggest footprint in France in the 20th century.

He is even named after the latest aircraft carrier and the largest airport in Paris.

De Gaulle as a cadet

De Gaulle was born in Lille, an industrial city in northern France, and unlike other French regions, De Gaulle grew up in an ascetic and labor-centered culture, which is said to have been culturally distant from many French people

However, the humiliation of the 1870 Franco-Prussian War was always in his mind, and from this point on he chose the path of a soldier to avenge the humiliation of defeat, growing into a hard-line French nationalist.

Charles de Gaulle

De Gaulle, who entered the military academy but was teased by his colleagues for his strong personality and tall stature, but was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry after World War I broke out, entered the ranks of French hero Colonel Philippe Peteng.

There he participates in the worst slaughter, the Battle of Verdun, but is wounded and taken prisoner by the Germans for 32 months. He tried to escape five times, but he was too tall to stand out because he was 196cm tall, and he failed repeatedly because he didn’t have the right clothes, but at the time, he was treated as an officer prisoner, so he ended up in solitary confinement.

Although he served as a deputy to Peteng, who became the head of the army after the end of the war, he stays as a captain for more than 10 years because he is considered arrogant due to his strong ego, but he is promoted to major by Peteng’s recommendation. In memory of this, De Gaulle was the leader of the Nazi puppet government of Bis France after the end of World War II

“Where did your husband, who was once my role model, disappear?”

lamented, and saved his life by lowering his sentence from death to life in prison.

In any case, it was directly checked by the French Army to settle in a corner stone, and despite its outstanding performance, the troops were disbanded. However, De Gaulle, who had seen the greatest chance of war since Hitler’s reign, suggested using four tank operation divisions, mechanized units, more than 100,000 mobile units with communication/distribution capabilities to facilitate support and close air support as a strategic reserve.

However, conservatives who believed in the Maginot Line and leaders who had no understanding of mobile warfare ignored it, and a small group of junior officers, including De Gaulle, went crazy, and saw Shobu as a result of the dramatic establishment of an armoured division just before the invasion of France.

Eventually, however, Germany invaded France, and all of France’s troops were pushed back, but the now-organized 4th Panzer Division, led by De Gaulle, struggled the most among the French, and actually dug up to 2 kilometers into the commander’s command in a remarkable mobile battle.

However, the incompetent French government declared its surrender, and De Gaulle defected to Britain with his comrades, shouting, “Shock or Caddshaw,” and later joined Admiral Emile Duisley to form an exile government, Free France.

However, in 1940, France’s main force was controlled by Vichy France, a puppet government led by Peteng, and the colony supported Vichy France, so De Gaulle’s free France had no real influence.

But Winston Churchill, the British prime minister, saw De Gaulle’s potential and was the only one who applied
Also, because of his character, he has a serious conflict with Roosevelt, the leader of the same coalition, and Churchill, the volunteer, which DeGaulle did on purpose, fearing that France would be branded as a German serviceman.

Roosevelt did not recognize him as a formal leader because he feared he would become a dictator, but it was not until 1945 that he saw him gradually dominating French refugees with charisma.

In addition, Admiral Fran Darlan, the head of the Free French Navy, was assassinated, and there was virtually no replacement for De Gaulle in Free France.

“Paris is hurt. Paris was destroyed. Paris was tortured. But Paris was liberated.”

  • Paris Liberation Speech –
    (De Gaulle, who enters the liberated Paris, boasts a greater head than any other factor)

It also brought North African colonies to the side of Free France with its unique charisma and vision, which led to the launch of the French National Freedom Committee in French Algeria to officially incorporate Free France into the Allied Forces.

In other words, France is no longer a part-timer, but a country that is at war with Germany. With the success of the landings in Normandy in 1944, the liberation of Paris was just around the corner, and the U.S. Army, Vidgolian right-wing Resistance, and the Communist Party competed in the fall of Paris, eventually with the help of the Resistance and the citizens of Paris.

De Gaulle and the Free French marched on the improvement with the enthusiastic cheers of hundreds of thousands of Parisians, where the myth of the Liberator De Gaulle was created. It is only then that de Gaulle is recognized as the official leader of France and becomes a lifelong political asset to all Allied leaders.

It was de Gaulle’s own political and strategic calculation, but the U.S., which originally did not view free France as a member of the coalition, excluded France from important post-war world order-reorganization talks such as the Yalta Conference.

However, the incident forced him to admit de Gaulle, who eventually dominated the French political situation, and accepted him as a member of the Allies. In other words, it was beneficial for de Gaulle to eat Paris for the benefit of France.

However, he shook hands with the French Communist Party, which accounted for 70 percent of the French resistance in the post-war cabinet selection, and the support of the majority of the people was centered on the center or the left, so the Communist Party eventually rose to the top in the general election and de Gaulle neatly announced his retirement later that year.

Charles de Gaulle

De Gaulle, who enjoyed writing memoirs and hobbies until the mid-50s, is once again in charge of France’s national fortunes.He was in danger of the overthrow of the Socialist regime by the defeat of the Suez War in 1956, the hellish Algerian War in 58 and the danger of a military coup, and Algeria belongs to France!!With overwhelming support from the right and the center, he defeated the 4th Republic and established the 5th Republic to become the president of France.

For your information, the soldiers of the 4th Republic were obsessed with the colony to forget the insults of World War II, left and right, and were forced out of Vietnam to fight the battle of Dien Bien Phu.

As a result, there were frequent calls for independence throughout the French colonies, a quarter of Africa, especially in Algeria, which recognized it as the mainland of France, and the situation was a mess, with the French brutally suppressing it like Nazi Germany.

On top of that, the moderate Socialist cabinet insisted on a compromise with Algeria, but of course, the opposition extreme right wing and the military even threatened the coup. Gong 4 asked De Gaulle, the only person to control the crazy dogs, for help.

Everyone, Paris is safe!

Get a living!

In the meantime, the coup d’etat army occupied Corsica and landed in southern France, and the economy was already ruined by military expenses following World War II, Vietnam, and Algeria, and foreign exchange reserves were already bottomed out.

Under these circumstances, De Gaulle dressed up for conquest, delivered a televised address, and appealed to the public, which alone breaks down the regime and wins parliamentary dissolution, constitutional revision, and interim government leadership.

Of course, the leftists rallied to protest, saying it was the second Napoleon, but if you think about it, the Communist Party will come back to power without De Gaulle, so the Socialist Party, institutional leftists, and centrist groups are a small misfortune, but the Communist Party is a nightmare.
In conclusion, De Gaulle admits to power

Naturally, the military, the right wing, and the middle wing also knew that DeGaulle would ignore Algeria’s demand for independence. However, DeGaulle sets Algeria apart, leaving behind a rare famous speech, “I understand you!”

In fact, De Gaulle was more negative about Algerian independence than anyone else, and at least wanted to create a secular state, but he faced reality calmly and decided that the only answer to all this mess was colonial independence.

So De Gaulle allowed the independence of the African colonies, and even De Gaulle, who was already supported by the whole nation, could not be able to do anything. However, when he came out of the colony, he created a new era organization called the French Union, like the Commonwealth.

Starting from this time, France has an all-round influence on Africa, and considering that it is actually so strong that it is called the New Imperialism, De Gaulle’s choice is the cause of colonial independence, and the reduction of management costs.

De Gaulle’s meeting with West Germany’s Prime Minister Konrat Adenauer, who is effectively considered the beginning of the European Union

(Prime Minister Konrat Adenauer is the wealth of modern Germany, which has been crowned the great German No. 1 by the Germans.)

De Gaulle was also a Europeanist, trying to check the U.S., which effectively overtook Europe to become the strongest nation, and to do so, he launched a European economic community, armed with nuclear weapons, and forced the U.S. to withdraw from NATO, a Sidabari.

He tried to revive European nationalism centered on the great France, and in the process, he worked with Germany for the sake of profit, although he was a mortal enemy. De Gaulle realized that France should not be left alone, so he chose West Germany as a suitable partner, a combination of the stigma of the defeated country and the interests of Prime Minister Conrad Adenauer, who aimed to fully incorporate it into the Western world rather than the Prussian line.

De Gaulle, who flew to Bonn, West Germany, signed a German-French reconciliation and cooperation treaty with Prime Minister Adenauer that ended his long-standing conflict and agreed to cooperate in the economic and diplomatic fields.

So starting at this point, Germany and France, the foes, turn into the best partners.

Oh, by the way, I hated my ally Britain, who thought the United States was a bridgehead to infiltrate Europe and knew that the UK would eventually choose the United States rather than Europe, so every time Britain tried to join the European Economic Community, it refused.

Well, De Gaulle’s prediction was right, considering Braxit.

As a result, De Gaulle’s popularity hit the sky, and the left was half abandoned, but a comet-like figure won about 45 percent of the vote, the first president of the French Socialist Party and the great Frenchman-ranked Fran 미ois Mitterrand.

Anyway, it’s DeGaulle’s second term in power, but in Quebec, France, Ata Quebec, they speak French, so why are they in the Canadian Federation? Hooray for the free Quebec!LOL, he made a diplomatic disrespect by speaking in public, and at this time he showed quite authoritarian rule, but he had more flexibility than other European presidential states.

He is very important about freedom, and he is generous with print media such as newspapers and magazines, and he also participates in the establishment of Le Monde. However, broadcasting was thoroughly controlled by the pro-government tone, and during the 68th Movement, employees of broadcasters, who were worse, staged a strike demanding independence of editing. Naturally, this is also because De Gaulle, a 19th-century figure, had an outdated perception that broadcasting should convey the voice of the government.

In addition, the presidential power in the De Gaulle era was so imperial that it did not originate in modern European political history, and a dictator in the East who saw it used it as a model for the October Restoration.

However, DeGaulle, who opposed the U.S. dollar policy and insisted on the gold standard, was strongly checked by the U.S. and its friends, and his popularity declined as Nixon stopped the gold conversion, and the new generation loathed the authoritarian and outdated DeGaulle, exploding into the 68th Movement.

The government lost control of several major cities, and even Paris was occupied by demonstrators. But De Gaulle wasn’t in Paris at the time, and that was not to escape, but to confirm the support of the elite French troops in West Germany.

The demonstrators naturally accepted that De Gaulle had fled and were overcome with victory. De Gaulle was already aware of the dangers of the army as a supreme leader and was in such a serious crisis that securing control over the army was a priority that all French military police officers were sent to suppress the riot.

French armoured units were waiting to secure martial law, surrounding large cities at the command of the Ministry of Defense. However, DeGaulle calmed the situation by taking control of the army until the end, and it was a landslide victory in the general election, so that DeGolfa could change the constitution.

Well, the obvious result is that the 68th Movement, which drove the De Gaulle regime to the brink of collapse, was students and they had no right to vote. In addition, political forces united in Bandgol did not have a centripetal point with de Gaulle-class charisma, and eventually they were cut by de Gaulle, who had a unified leader.

However, DeGaulle was also hit hard by leadership and was covered up by a referendum to resign several times, but when the referendum was rejected in 1969, he decided that the people no longer trust him and resigned neatly.

How neat his resignation was, even the opposition who still cursed him admitted that his resignation was really democratic and heroic.

Only his name is written on the tomb where the great hero of France is buried. De Gaulle died in 1970, after his memoir was published in his private residence. De Gaulle, Daeyeongwoong, had to be buried in Fanteon, but De Gaulle prepared a tomb in my hometown of Colungbe, and only family and residents attended, and asked me to use only my name and year for the tombstone.

Therefore, only his name and year are written on his tomb. De Gaulle was a political ambitious and self-righteous man. He was also wary of the left and missed many things or made mistakes.

But he was a patriot who fought back against the great evil Nazis as best he could, and diplomacy, which established a non-aligned line in the interests of the first world, was in France’s national interest, and it was De Gaulle’s shift from anachronistic colonialism to decolonization.

It is true that he showed the face of an authoritarian dictator, but he didn’t go out too quickly to suppress the human rights of the people and left the opposition who criticized him bitterly.

In addition, he expanded his voting rights to all citizens, recognized conscientious objection to military service, established a new alternative abdomen, adopted a dual government system that divides his exclusive power, and established a runoff system to overcome the limitations of the two-party system.

This contrasts with his rival Churchill’s strong character as a wartime prize winner, and he was worthy of the worst period of chaos in French history. Even if the real name and cancer are divided, I think it is true that the de-goal is a character that heaven gave for France.

For reference, he was a stubborn person who was hard to deal with even his family, but he only sent a lot of letters expressing affection and the sentence was soft, unlike his image.

And her second daughter, Jeanne, had Down’s syndrome, which she cared for and loved her daughter, who was treated to the point of abandoning her child at the time, and created an atmosphere around her so that she wouldn’t consider herself abnormal, but her daughter died young. And De Gaulle decides that his tomb is where his daughter’s grave is

History of France

History of France

France has the most complicated human history in Europe.

The excavated archaeological relics are up to 100,000 years old, indicating that settlement has been in place since the Paleolithic Age in France. Around 1200 BC, Celtic Gauls began to migrate south and west from the Rhine basin toward what is now northern France and Italy. Around 600 BC, Ionic Greeks built a commercial colony in Masilia. The most famous of the centuries-old Ionian settlements in what is now southern France has developed into Marseilles.

Beginning in 121 BC, the Roman conquest of Gaul ended in 58–50 BC with the conquest of Julius Caesar. Gaul was thoroughly Romanized during Roman rule.

As Rome declined, Gaul was invaded by Germanic tribes. By the end of the 5th century, the Frankish Salisians had occupied the northern Loire River, the Western Goths had occupied Aquitaine and Provence, and the Burgundes had occupied the Lon River basin. The Salis took control of most of Gaul in the 6th century under the leadership of the Merovingian dynasty.

By the 8th century, the Merovingian dynasty had been transferred to the Carolingian dynasty, whose greatest king, Charlemagne, extended his empire to much of Western Europe in the early 9th century. His death caused the division of the empire. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the westernmost territory of the Charlemagne Empire became known as the Francia Ocidentalis. When the last king of the Carolingian dynasty died in 987, Wig Café was elected king of the Francia Okidentalis.

The Café dynasty was weak at first, but lasted until 1328, accounting for most of modern France except for Flanders, Brittany, Burgundy, and Akiten. In 1328, the throne of France was handed over to Philip VI of the Balois family, which triggered the struggle against England, known as the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453).

This war firmly established the Balois family as a French royal family, and England lost all of its territory in France, except Calais. By the end of the 15th century, Burgundy and Brittany had come under the control of the Balois family, and the territory of France was almost the same as it is today.

In the 16th century, the Protestant movement spread throughout France, leading to a series of religious wars and civil wars. The war between Protestants and Roman Catholics culminated in the slaughter of about 3,000 Huguenots in Paris on the eve of Saint Bartholomeo’s Day in 1572.

In the ensuing turmoil, Henry de Navar (Henri IV), a Protestant of the Bourbon family, ascended the throne, but he eventually converted to Catholicism to secure peace. He promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), allowing the Huguenots considerable freedom of faith. In the 17th century, outstanding politicians such as Cardinal Richelieu and Mazarain helped to make France the strongest nation in Europe. The later kings of the Bourbon family, especially Louis XIV, took France’s absolute kingship to a new level by decorating a luxurious palace in Versailles and claiming to be the sun king.

However, as a result of a series of costly overseas expeditions in the 18th century, France lost several overseas territories and almost went bankrupt.

The revolution in 1789 drove out the king, issued the Declaration of Human Rights, and overthrew the old regime. The French Revolution ended with a five-member weak government after bloodshed. The regime was soon transferred to Napoleon, who ruled France from 1799 to 1814, first as president and later as emperor.

Napoleon’s massive military expedition ended with his downfall in 1815. The limitedly restored monarchy lasted until 1871, with the exception of a short period of republic (1848–52) and ended with the Third Republic following the defeat of the French-Prussian War (1870–71). France lost the Alsace-Lauren region to Germany in 1871, but regained it at the end of World War I.

After Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940, a pro-German regime was established under Philippe Petain of Vichy France (World War II). Under the leadership of General Charles de Gaulle, who defected to England, the “Free France” was formed, and a resistance movement took place in Korea. France was liberated by the Allies and the Free French in 1944, followed by the restoration of parliamentary democracy under the Fourth Republic.

The Fourth Republic could not afford the costly war against nationalist guerrillas in Indochina in the 1950s and the nationalist movement that emerged in French colonies, including Algeria. De Gaulle, who returned to public service in 1958, was the president of the Fifth Republic and led the way in making most of France’s overseas colonies independent. Fran 사회ois Mitterrand was the first Socialist elected president in 1981, re-elected in 1988 and resigned in 1995 (→ French history).

Various stories about France

French Culture Found in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Notre Dame Cathedral and Central Post Office

Vietnam’s most developed economic city, Saigon (former name of Ho Chi Minh City), the capital of Free Vietnam (largest south), Paris in the East, Pearl in the East, and the headquarters of the French Indo-China Peninsula (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos). These are various languages that express the city of Ho Chi Minh. I have lived here for a long time while working abroad, so I know and have great affection.

French Culture Found in Ho Chi Minh City

French Culture Found in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Throughout history, you can see several traces of the culture of the place over time. (architecture, food, language, etc.) For example, Hong Kong has British footprints, Macau has Portuguese footprints, Vietnam has French footprints. If you have visited Ho Chi Minh City, I recommend you to have a French restaurant meal. Because you can experience the atmosphere as if you were traveling in time.

French and Vietnamese coffee

French and Vietnamese coffee

Vietnam is the world’s second largest producer of coffee after Brazil. Coffee was first introduced by France in 1857 and is now the second most important export product after rice. Vietnam is the only country that says Starbucks is worse than a coffee shop in front of home, so you can see its status and pride in coffee. In fact, when Starbucks, which has little history of failure, entered its first store in Vietnam in 2015, there were big concerns about local coffee. However, contrary to expectations, Starbucks has been struggling with growth of less than 50 stores in Vietnam so far.

I don’t really like coffee, but Vietnamese coffee is really good.

There are also local French coffee brands such as Korean Coffee Bean and Hollys in Vietnam. For example, “Highland Coffee” has many branches and “Trung Nguyen Legend Coffee” is specialized in high quality

Notre Dame Cathedral and Central Post Office

Notre Dame Cathedral and Central Post Office

It’s by the famous French architect Gustave Eiffel. (That’s the same architect of the Eiffel Tower in Paris.)
Why don’t you not just visit the post office, but write your own mail and say hello to your family in an analog way?

​Various stories about France

Book Display – ‘Bite-sized French History’ France, a country of gourmet food

French gastronomy

History of French gastronomy

France has a lot of excellent wine and food to match its reputation as a ‘country of gourmet’. French cuisine has been recognized for centuries as the best dish in the world.

The French are willing to give up their morning sleep and tour bakeries on Sundays to buy freshly baked croissants. Reflecting this French affection for food, there are many expressions related to food in France.

For example, when trying to express sadness, they say, “It’s like a day without bread,” or when they feel good, they say, “I have potatoes.”

The book features a feast of wine and food representing France, including Cognac, which Victor Hugo called “God’s Wine,” Champagne, French bread, baguette, King of Cheese, Brie, Camembert, Roquepor, Marial Cheese, and legendary-flavored Stu Casule.

The author appreciates local foods that have been relatively undervalued compared to Parisian cuisine, such as Lyon, Marseille, and Provence, and emphasizes that well-known French dishes such as foie gras, bouillaves, and Cocobain are actually local specialties, guiding readers to the world of gourmet.

“France and Belgium’s gastronomic culture (Cuisses de Grenouille) endangered frogs…200 million animals are imported from Europe every year

French gastronomy

French Frog Cuisine (Cuisses de Grenouille)

The British Guardian reported on the 23rd (local time) that French and Belgian food culture is putting some frog species at risk of extinction.

According to a report published by the international non-profit animal and environmental protection organization “Pro Wild Life,” some European countries, including France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, import more than 200 million frogs every year.

Cuisses de Grenouille
Cuisses de Grenouille

To make a dish called Cuisses de Grenouille.

Frogs exported to Europe account for 74% of the total from Indonesia.

Pro Wildlife warned that the number of frogs sold for food in Europe is so high that “some frog species are rapidly disappearing from the earth.”

In particular, the Guardian reported that the Turkish native “Anatolian seal frog” will not be found in the wild within 10 years, and frogs living in Indonesia and Albania are also feared to decrease in population.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has identified frogs and other amphibians as the most threatened vertebrates.

On the other hand, 27 of the EU members have set a policy to ban the capture of frogs in their own countries, but have not imposed import restrictions.

Environmental groups have called for EU countries to restrict frog imports, mark the origin of frog legs, and register extinct animal and plant species.

Various stories about France

France Declares ‘Air Pollution and War’

Air Pollution

France’s worst air pollution in 10 years

Exhaust gas, heating, and other pollutants. Construction of eco-friendly means of transportation and maintenance of heating facilities are urgent

The Ild France area, the capital of France, suffered from severe winter air pollution. Air pollution concentrations frequently exceeded the standard level due to vehicle exhaust, winter heating facilities, and low wind weather. Environmental experts point out that in order to reduce air pollution, traffic regulations such as a two-day vehicle system are also important, but above all, the root cause of the problem must be solved. The fundamental measure is to build an infrastructure to easily use eco-friendly means of transportation such as bicycles and to overhaul heating facilities in old houses.

Traffic regulations, such as a two-part vehicle system, are important to solve the air pollution problem in large cities, but fundamental solutions are needed for factors that constantly reduce air quality across France, such as housing heating, factory emissions and agricultural waste emissions This is the explanation of Denny Buajeng, a spokesman for the Nicola Willo Foundation, a French environmental group that suffered the worst winter air pollution in 10 years. For example, Parisians suffer great inconvenience due to the accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere below every time a wind-free high-pressure area is formed in winter.

The main culprit of air pollution in Paris is automobile exhaust. Grenoble, a small town in southeastern France, is no exception to air pollution, but the main culprit of fine dust emissions here is wood boiler heating. Fine dust from wooden boilers exceeds 40% of Grenoble’s total fine dust emissions. In addition, residents in many factory areas and agricultural areas are constantly exposed to toxic substances.

Air pollution is also closely related to public health. According to the survey, 42,000 people die early from respiratory diseases caused by air pollution annually in France. The French Board of Audit and Inspection estimates the cost of managing diseases caused by air pollution from 20 billion euros (about 24.2 trillion won) to 30 billion euros (about 36.3 trillion won) per year. A report submitted to the Senate said the central government and local governments pay 100 billion euros (about 121 trillion won) annually due to air pollution problems.

The French Board of Audit and Inspection evaluates that air pollutant emissions have steadily decreased since 1990. Bernard Garni of the Atmo-France Secretariat, a coalition of organizations authorized to measure atmospheric conditions, explains that the reason for the decrease in air emissions is because the industrial structure has changed from manufacturing to service, but the manufacturing process has advanced and the performance of pollutant filters has improved.

In this context, the frequent air pollution warnings may be due to the fact that air pollution status can be better understood. An alert is issued when air pollutants exceed the World Health Organization’s recommended standards. According to the standards of the Health Organization, an alarm is issued when fine dust (PM10) of less than 10 microns (μm, 1 μm = 0.001mm) exceeds 50 mg/m. (If an air pollution warning is issued, public transportation such as buses, subways, and urban railroads can be used for free instead of restricting the use of private cars. -Editor) Of course, even if the amount of fine dust in the atmosphere is below the standard of the health organization, it does not necessarily mean that the atmosphere is good.

air pollution-france
▲ France’s metropolitan area is suffering from severe winter air pollution. The sky near the Eiffel Tower in Paris in December 2016 is cloudy with air pollution. REUTERS

54% of Nitrogen Oxide is Road traffic

Currently, France’s standards for fine dust and nitrogen oxides exceed those of the European Union (EU). In fact, the European Commission sent a letter to the European Court in April 2015 saying it would file a lawsuit against the French government unless the French government quickly came up with measures to reduce air pollution in more than 10 major cities, including Paris, Lyon, Grenoble, Marseille, Martinique, La Valle D’Arve, Nice, Toulon, Dué, Bettung and Valencienne.

Moreover, there are many toxic substances that cause air pollution in addition to 12 regulated pollutants, including fine dust, nitrogen oxides, and ozone, which are the three major pollutants. Among them, the air pollution problem caused by ammonia (NH3) is serious. Ammonia is mainly emitted from the agricultural sector, and in most cases, it is dispersed into the atmosphere or discharged from livestock farms during the nitrogen fertilizer spraying process. Even when spraying pesticides, it is a problem because some of them are scattered into the atmosphere.

The French government has implemented a number of policies to solve both temporary air pollution deterioration and essential air pollution problems at the same time. In particular, measures were taken against the transportation sector, which is considered the main culprit of air pollution. One-third of the French population is routinely exposed to fine dust emitted by cars, and 54% of nitrogen oxide emissions are also caused by road traffic, which is why the transportation sector is responsible. This situation is also due to the high proportion of diesel vehicles in France. According to spokesman Denny Buajeng, the reason for the high proportion of diesel vehicles was that the government gave tax benefits to companies and households in the 1980s to promote diesel vehicle consumption. In 1990, diesel cars accounted for only 16 percent of all cars, but now they have soared to 62 percent.

As a result, the ruling Socialist government has begun to reduce tax cuts for diesel vehicles. In 2014, the oil tax per liter of high-end gasoline was 20.7 cents (about 250 won and 0.01 euros per cent) higher than that of diesel oil, but in 2015, the gap between gasoline and diesel oil was 18 cents, and in 2016, it decreased to 15.2 cents. It remains to be seen whether the oil tax policy stance will continue once the presidential election is over and a new president is elected.

The government introduced various tax benefits to promote the purchase of electric vehicles, but electric vehicle prices are still very high. It has also set up an incentive system for ordinary people to give up old-fashioned diesel vehicles and buy used gasoline vehicles that are not long on the market, but that is not enough. And to avoid a second “diesel gate” (a case where Volkswagen in Germany manipulated diesel vehicle software and passed the authorities’ emissions inspection – editors), new automobile emission standards and emissions inspection procedures should be strengthened. Experts explain that it will take a considerable amount of time to significantly reduce diesel vehicles and increase the proportion of electric or gasoline vehicles. Nevertheless, the mayor of Paris has an ambitious plan to completely remove diesel vehicles from Paris by 2020. To this end, the city government plans to provide additional support for households with diesel vehicles.

The two-part vehicle system, which is implemented when an air pollution warning is issued, has been found to be effective in reducing air pollution. Airparif, an air pollution measurement company, announced that when the two-part vehicle system was applied in Paris, traffic volume, fine dust emissions, and nitrogen oxide emissions decreased by 18%, 6%, and 10%, respectively. However, the two-part vehicle system has the disadvantage of treating vehicles that emit a lot of pollutants the same without distinguishing them from vehicles that emit a lot of pollutants. Several cities have introduced a “Crit’Air” rating system that classifies vehicles according to the level of pollutant emissions. A clear air sticker is attached to the vehicle to indicate the pollutant emission rating of the vehicle.

#Fine dust from wood boilers and fireplaces

If an air pollution warning is issued, the operation of vehicles that emit the most pollutants based on the Crete Air rating, not the standard of the hole at the end of the license plate, can be restricted. According to the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the introduction of the Crite Air system can reduce fine dust emissions by 12% and nitrogen oxide emissions by 10%.

In the long run, the best way to reduce air pollution in cities is to change the way they move. “Now there will be no place for large diesel vehicles in the city,” Deeni Buajeng said. “People will use vehicles by renting or sharing light and small light vehicles.” To that end, the Nicola Willo Foundation emphasizes the importance of establishing an incentive system for people to use public transportation such as taxis, shared vehicles, buses and minibuses, which have much more hours than private cars standing for 95 percent of the 24 hours a day.

Above all, however, the use of cars itself should be reduced. It recommends ‘active movement’ such as using public transportation and cycling or walking. According to Bouajeng’s explanation, electric bicycles are an efficient means of transportation, but bicycle utilization in France is still very low. Buajeng argues that in order to promote bicycle use, dedicated roads should be expanded and bicycle use compensation systems (employers compensate with cash or allowances when employees need to travel in relation to work – editors).

Strasbourg is one of France’s highest rates of bicycle use. Strasbourg’s deputy mayor and environmental policy officer Alain Jund said, “Strasbourg is an honor student of inferiority. The rate of bicycle use in Strasbourg is 14%, far below Copenhagen’s 45% but much higher than the French average of 2-4%.” By the end of 1982, the bike lanes in Strasbourg were just over 30 kilometers long, but now they have increased to 650 kilometers. The expansion of public transportation played a big role here. In Strasbourg, if you want to build a new transportation infrastructure, whether it is a bus or a tram, you must create a bicycle-only road together.

The efficient transportation policy eventually took into account the aspect of national land improvement. In particular, there is a need for a transportation policy that can cope with the sprawl phenomenon that most cities in France experience in common (Sprawl Penomena, a phenomenon in which urban areas expand disorderly to suburban areas-editors). Deputy Mayor Alain Jund insists that we should try harder ourselves. In the past, the city of Strasbourg turned its back on the Rhine River, where the industrial park is located. Now, the city government is trying to fix the banks of the Rhine River without letting the city of Strasbourg expand into rural areas so that the city’s boundaries can be established toward the Rhine River.”

Air pollution is not just a matter of mobility. In many parts of France, wooden boilers and fireplaces older than road traffic are the main culprits of fine dust emissions.


Yakson Therapy Type/Price

Yakson Therapy|약손 명가

is very famous for wedding management and facial contour management.
The Jamsil Station branch is located 3 to 4 minutes on foot from Jamsil Station Exit 8.
You can see the Lotte World Tower, which is Jamsil. It’s right behind Lotte Castle Gold.

Jamsil Station branch is very convenient because transportation is very convenient. When you go up to the 5th floor of this building, it’s right there on the right~!! First of all, in preparation for COVID-19, it is an environment where you can check your body temperature, fill out a questionnaire, and register for QR code access, so you can be managed with confidence. I checked my body temperature and QR, and immediately received a consultation from the director at the consultation room. 오피런피플 website, a discount event is in progress. Those who are interested, please take a look.

Introduction of Yakson Therapy

It is a manual therapy created in 1979 by Lee Byung-cheol, chairman of the Yakson Myungga. Looking at more than 40 handicraft management programs of , which has a long history, it seems to be Korea’s representative handicraft therapy brand.
There are so many different types of care for not only the face but also the body, so you can get the customized care you need.

​ Yakson Therapy Types, programs, and prices of representative facial treatments of

Yakson Therapy|얼굴 관리

In particular, K-BEAUTY Celebrity Management A is said to be very popular. Everyone was taking care of them so hard and taking care of their beauty right??-?? The manager showed
Representative Before/After Cases This person deserves to appear in the booklet. You have a very beautiful face shape. Just looking at the after photos makes me excited. I am already thinking happily about what kind of management I should get.

Because of my personality and constitution, I am always thinking about something and want to do well, so my neck and shoulders are always tense without realizing it. It’s on the stiff side, and the body itself is strong and muscular, so the neck and shoulders are really, really good..

These types do not have smooth blood circulation to the face and head, so the face often swells and grows. Also, if you sit and work in the wrong posture for a long time, the bones of the face gradually become distorted and the face shape becomes unpretentious. However, I am worried because I cannot think about it at all, I cannot give up my muscular constitution, nor can I not work/study.
My conclusion is to just work hard, exercise hard, and get good management while working hard. So, as a gift for me, who is struggling during the doctoral vacation, I decided to try the small face care from among various management.

Yakson Therapy|수기지압 요법

If you are like me, please read this article to the end. After the consultation, I changed into a gold gown in the changing room. There are a lot of people taking wedding care in the dressing room, so there was a phrase like this attached to it, and there were also instructions on how to take care of your face.

Jamsil Station Branch is overall pleasant and tidy Yakson Myungga Jamsil Station Branch
Non-face-to-face curtains are well placed on each bed in the management room so that you can be safely managed even in the face of Corona.

The customer service questionnaire is given after the management is complete, and in the remarks column, what kind of manager managed it, and the satisfaction is checked after management.

I like that does not only take care of the face, but also manages the parts connected with the face, from the scalp, back, arms, and décolleté in general. On the face, they focus on the length and width of the face, which I am particularly concerned about. Actually, I want to improve both, but I asked for the cheekbones to make the face line smoother. Compared to before the treatment, when I covered the face with my hands, not only the swelling of the face but also the bones were gathered inside!!

Effect of Yakson Therapy that you feel every time you wash your face

However, the bones have a tendency to return to their original state, so at least 10 times at intervals of a week or so, the best is 20 times a year, as long as the weight does not gain more than 4-5 kg, I want to buy a ticket. It’s cold these days, so keep warm on the way. Jamsil Station branch, which even takes hot packs like this, stood out.

Sports Massage Cream Review – atmofrance

연관 키워드

  • 약손 오피사이트 할인 행사
  • 오피플런 파트너쉽
  • 런피플 런칭 할인 이벤트
  • 오피서비스 트리트먼트 추가
  • 오피런피플 제휴기념 50% 할인 이벤트
  • 오피런피플 우수리뷰 선정 발표
  • 오피런피플 프리미엄 광고 선정

Dalpang Signature Spa, 오피 Spa’s Honest Exploration

오피 Spa - 시그니처테라피

오피 Spa’s Honest Exploration

Since it’s the change of seasons these days, I sometimes have skin trouble and dryness inside, so I went to get some care. In autumn and winter, I pay more attention to self-care, but sometimes after getting a spa like this, my stress is relieved, so I went there excitedly. ♬
I visited the signature spa of 오피 spa, my favorite beauty brand, Dalpang, located in Cheongdam.

오피 Spa opened in 2002

From the beginning, they selected the Dalpang brand, which is the most comfortable for skin and has no complaints, through a thorough survey of the department store market.
This is the number one salon that has been loved (especially by brides-to-be). The reviews are very good.
The space is not big, but it’s warm and cozy.
I’ve been using this steam skin line recently. Out of these, I like mask lotion It smells so good and you can get care of it with various Dalpang products.
Each room has two beds.
I think it would be good to get care with your parents or as a couple.

오피 Spa’s signature spa program

“Dalfang’s signature special treatment (120 minutes).”
The price is really good – it’s never more expensive than other shops!
1) Cleansing (intral)
2) Deep Cleansing (Mild Peeling + Dermabrasion)
3) Backline Massage (Dalfang Body Jojoba)
4) With decolte + face massage (renewing balm + chamomile + 8 flower balm), luster, moisturizing and contouring
5) Soothing Skin (Camelia Mask)
6) Moisturizing, lifting, elasticity, regeneration (steamul divine mask or vetiver oil mask + powder modeling mask)
7) collagen velvet
8) Finish with toner, eye lifting serum, soothing serum, chamomile, soothing cream

My skin was glossy after taking care of it. I think my face got prettier, too. I’m looking forward to it.
The director is also very kind, so I recommend you to consult if you want to take care of it.

Sports Massage Cream Review

Our missions
The ATMO Federation represents all 38 associations approved for air quality monitoring (AASQA).

In accordance with the Law on Air and the Rational Use of Energy, the approved associations bring together 4 colleges, which are fairly represented on the Boards of Directors:

Prefects and State Services
Local and territorial communities
Issuers (carriers, manufacturers, etc.)
Environmental and consumer protection associations and qualified personalities.

Basic tasks:
(in reference to the law on Air and the Rational Use of Energy of December 30, 1996)

Implementation of air quality monitoring and information
Dissemination of results and forecasts
Immediate transmission to the prefects of information relating to overruns or forecasts of overruns of alert and recommendation thresholds.

The Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development (MEDD) is responsible for implementing the national air monitoring, prevention and information policy.

It relies for this on:
the ATMO federation and all the associations it has approved,
ADEME (Environment and Energy Management Agency),
the LCSQA (Central Air Quality Monitoring Laboratory).
(Environment and Energy Management Agency)
ADEME ensures the technical coordination of air quality monitoring at the national level and manages the National Air Quality Database (BDQA). Its regional delegations participate in the Boards of Directors of approved associations, in the State college,
The Central Air Quality Monitoring Laboratory (LCSQA) acts as scientific and technical support for approved associations and is made up of the Ecole des Mines de Douai (EMD), the National Institute for the Industrial Environment and of Risks (INERIS) and the National Testing Laboratory (LNE). It contributes to improving the quality of measurements and provides the link between research and application in the field.


Monitoring is carried out by various means including monitoring by fixed devices, measurement campaigns, emissions cadastres and modeling of air pollution in a given territory. The implementation of these various means makes it possible to provide cartographic representations of the pollution.


Every citizen has the right to be informed about the quality of the air they breathe. Thus, for agglomerations of more than 100,000 inhabitants, the associations disseminate a global indicator of air quality: the ATMO index. For cities with less than 100,000 inhabitants, we speak of the simplified Air Quality Index (AQIs). These are daily air quality indicators. They are calculated from the results of “urban” and “peri-urban” stations representative of so-called “homogeneous pollution” zones. They mainly concern agglomerations. 4 pollutants are taken into account: fine particles, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone. Concentrations of each of these pollutants are rated on a scale of 1 very good to 10 very poor. The highest of these 4 sub-indices gives the ATMO index for the day. Real-time cartographic data can complete the dissemination of this index.

Convention ATMO-AFSSET

L’Agence française de sécurité sanitaire de l’environnement et du travail (Afsset) et ATMO France signent une convention de partenariat.

The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset), represented by Mr Martin Guespereau, Director General, and the National Federation of Approved Associations for Air Quality Monitoring (ATMO France), represented by Mr. Christian Hutin, deputy of the North, its president signed a bilateral partnership agreement today.
It is now recognized by the scientific community that air pollution has harmful effects on health. The AASQAs, through their mission of monitoring air quality and implementing high-performance tools, are able to provide detailed data on exposure to air pollution. In this sense, they are “key” partners for Afsset. They provide input for expert appraisal work in risk assessment; they provide support for the implementation of detailed techniques for characterizing exposure to atmospheric pollution, with the aim of being useful for health impact studies.
The contribution of the AASQAs to the Agency’s expert appraisal work already takes several forms: Participation in Afsset’s committee of specialized experts on “Risks related to air environments” and in various working groups examining referrals relating to the health risks induced by air pollutants; participation in the orientation and forecasting committee of the Pesticide Residues Observatory; ongoing research and development agreements aimed at improving knowledge of exposure to atmospheric pollution.
This agreement completes and frames the already fruitful collaborations with the AASQA.
The organization of the network on which Afsset relies to carry out itself or have carried out any expertise, analysis or study necessary for its missions, is a priority strategic orientation of the agency on which the solidity and relevance of his expertise.
The list of referrals in progress, Afsset’s opinions and reports can be consulted on

Contact the Press Office
Celine Delysse and Nathalie Lonnel: 01 56 29 13 77
[email protected]

Sports Massage Cream Review

It’s okay for me if I exercise or have a lot of basic activities, but I’m not that’s not the case. When I work, I don’t move much and I always sit down. So I was thinking about it, but recently, the weather got hot, so I thought about wearing short clothes, so I took them out and put them on at home. “Oh, when did this come out of course”

My thigh cellulite was formed. It was the moment when I realized that I really didn’t move, didn’t work out, and gained weight. I think there are a lot of people like me these days. So I thought I shouldn’t do this, so I started looking for information about cellulite massage.

Then I found out about SO2C Perfect Leg Slimming All-in-One. It’s famous for sports massage cream. I’ve been using it diligently for some time, but it hasn’t been long since I used it, so there was no dramatic effect. But my thighs feel more elastic and slimmer! Thanks to you, the cellulite seems to fade.​

Actually, I searched the Internet and found that there are more than 100 kinds of cellulite massage cream. So honestly, it’s true that I thought a lot about what to write. Nevertheless, I will tell you the reason why I finally chose this product. Personally, I’m more confident than anyone else when I sit down and search for information. Even if you’re not active, your endurance is amazing. After comparing this product and that product a lot, the final conclusion has been made with this product.

There were many reasons, but the thing that caught my eye was that it was just for the legs. And it’s a best-selling product, so I can’t stand it without using it. When we look into slimming and cellulite massage creams, it’s hard to say which parts are used intensively. It’s just for the body, so you can use it for any part of the body. Of course, this will work, too! But I don’t think it’s a product that’s optimized for just one part. So I thought this was it, and after SO2C Perfect Shaping Leg Slimming Cream debuted at Cozenskin in 2015, it became a best-selling product that many customers used for 7 years.

I usually use 오피사이트 원 클릭 often. There are so many good products that I always use. But I can’t stand the bestseller among them. First of all, SO2C Perfect Leg Sliming All-in-One includes two boxes of SO2C Perfect Shaping Leg Cream, Coffee Plus Lift Body Scrub, and additional gifts, Magnet Body Massager.

I’ll tell you in detail one by one!

First of all, SO2C Perfect Shaping Leg Slimming Cream is a specialized product for thighs and legs. It is excellent in managing subcutaneous fat and cellulite in the lower body. Apply it to the clumped or swollen calves and massage it to soothe the legs and immediately slimm. In addition, it is an organic patent ingredient that can be used without irritation to the skin, so even those with sensitive skin can use it without any burden. I was also worried about this, but I was surprised because there was no irritation. I’m touched that it’s effective and has good ingredients.

The reason why this cream can give cellulite and slimming effects to the extent that it is a bestseller is thanks to slimmers named Adiposlim and Adipores. These two ingredients help prevent fat decomposition and new fat accumulation. So you don’t have to worry about yo-yo!

And the other components that can double the effect of this sports massage cream are the other components. The Coffee Plus Lift Bar Discrup is designed to remove waste, perm massage, and line lifting
If you apply cream after using this as a multi-functional booster in the previous step, the absorption and permeability of the product will increase by more than 40%. There’s a reason why they’re together as components. And it’s really convenient because you can use it exactly like a scrub when you take a shower!

The same goes for massage tools. Magnet body massager has a sharp cellulite massage tip. This tip promotes circulation and applies appropriate pressure to smooth the bumpy skin and make the body line pretty. I use sports cream twice a day in the morning and in the evening, and I use scrub about 2 to 3 times a week. I heard that the more you do it, the faster you can see the effect.

Real fat builds up in a blink of an eye, but it takes a lot of effort and time to lose it. I’ve tried all kinds of diet methods that are famous, but it’s so hard that it’s hard to do it consistently. But this method is so simple and easy that I can do it without any stress, so I keep doing it. The effect is even better because it allows intensive management of the areas I want, and the SOS silhouette program contains the patent ingredients and patent construction of the French Sepik Institute, which boasts a 70-year history and 64 registered patents!

Try thigh cellulite massage easily with sports massage cream!

The flower of overseas activities that college students dream of doing at least once – atmofrance